Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
Large Hadron Collider is the largest Particle Accelerator in the world. It first started in 2008 and remains the most powerful accelerator till date.It consists of a 27 km cylindrical superconducting tube with magnets to accelerate the Energy of particles along the way inside the tube. There are two high energy particle beams which travel at high speed (Close to Speed of light) in opposite direction in two different small tubes which are kept at a ultra-high vacuum. They are under the influence of superconducting electromagnets. These electromagnets operate in the superconducting state to conduct electricity without any resistance or loss of energy. This involves cooling electromagnets up to ‑271.3°C with the help of liquefied helium. The particles are so small that we have to use squeeze magnets to bring the particles close together to increase the chances of collision.
The aim of Large Hadron Collider is to test the various particle theories proposed in Physics till date including the properties of Higgs boson and to search the new family of particles existing in nature. Earlier the collider was used to test proton – proton collisions but after a couple of lead – lead collisions were tested. Nowadays proton – lead collisions are tested in hope of finding something new. LHC’s computing team holds a record of most data to be analyzed in a year which is even more than 1o petabytes of data. LHC’s computing division has one of the most complex Network Systems which connects 170 computing grids in 42 countries.
As the name suggests Hadron Collider, collides hadron particles. Hadron is a type of composite particle consisting of quarks held together by the strong electromagnetic forces of nature. You must have studied atoms are the smallest found fundamental source of matter, Well someone tells you this again let them know about quarks because quarks are the smallest found fundamental source of matter. Quarks combine up to form composite particles called Hadron, the maximum stable of which are Protons and Neutrons which are the components of atomic nuclei. There are 6 types of quarks (up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom). Quarks have a charge of -1/3 e and +2⁄3 e. These following foundings were tested and confirmed using the LHC.