Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician and an astronomer born on 25th of December 1642. He founded the principles of modern physics including the laws of motion and is regarded as one of the greatest minds of the 17th century Scientific Revolution.
Isaac Newton father died before he was born. When Isaac Newton was 3, his mother left him alone with his grandmother and married a young man from a village nearby. At the age of 12, Newton was reunited with his mother after her other husband died. She brought her three small children from her second marriage to live with Newton and family.
In 1662 Isaac Newton enrolled at the Trinity College, Cambridge. This is the place where he found a father figure who helped him on to the road of important discoveries. Isaac Barrow helped Newton steer away from the standard undergraduate studies and helped him steer towards the mystery of big unsolved mathematical problems of the day, e.g calculus – a way of explaining how things change. Calculus was later a crucial factor for explaining the universe in mathematical terms.
In 1665, The Great Plague was ravaging Europe had also come to Cambridge, forcing the university to close down. After a two-year break, Newton returned back to Cambridge in 1667 and was elected as a minor fellow at the Trinity College. He was still not considered as a standout scholar. In the following years, his fortune improved. Newton passed his M.Arts degree in 1669. During this time, he started researching on infinite series. Newton quickly wrote something called De Analysis which consisted expounding his own wider-ranging results. He shared this with his friend and mentor Isaac Barrow, but didn’t include his name as author.
released his publication of Opticks. Not everyone at the Royal Academy was excited about Newton’s discoveries in optics including Robert Hooke, one of the notable members of the Royal Academy and a scientist who had accomplished a lot in the areas of mechanics and optics.While Newton explained that the light was composed of particles, Hooke believed that the light was composed of waves. Hooke quickly opposed Newton’s paper and attacked Newton’s methodology and conclusions.
The rivalry of Newton and Hooke went on for many years thereafter. In 1678, Newton suffered a nervous breakdown after the death of his mother, He became more isolated than ever the following year and for six years he stopped intellectual exchange except when someone initiated correspondence.
In 1684 Isaac Newton was challenged by Robert Hooke to prove his theories relating to the motion on planetary orbits, Newton shown what is considered to be the foundation for physics.
The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica took Newton more than 2 years to write. It was the hard work, research, thinking, and observation of more than 20 years. It contained his theory of calculus, the three laws of motion and the first account of his theory of universal gravitation. Together, this became a revolutionary new mathematical description of the Universe. This is the work of what he is remembered for today.
In 1703, Newton was elected as the president of the Royal Society after Robert Hooke’s death. In 1705, A controversy that had been up for years, Gottfried Leibniz publicly accused Newton of plagiarizing his research, claiming that infinitesimal calculus was discovered by him several years before the publication of Principia.
By the time Newton reached 80, He was experiencing lot of health problems. In March 1727, Newton felt severe pain in his abdomen and couldn’t handle it and never to regain consciousness. He died on March 31, 1727 at the age of 84.